Classification of Viruses
Viruses can be easily classified based on their nuclear genome. The nuclear genome of viruses can either be a single strand of DNA or a double strand of RNA. The ‘capsid’ is the protective coating around the nucleic acid. Various types of viruses cause disease and are classified according to the nucleic acid they contain. Virologists classify viruses based on their genomic structure. The ‘capsid’ of a virus may be circular or linear.
Viruses have two forms: endothermic and ectothermic. The former are cold-blooded and have a biological pump that helps them replicate. However, some viruses are adapted for growth in ectothermic animals. This means that they are able to reproduce only in the cold. For example, the human placenta is formed by ancient viruses. Both types of viruses are capable of replicating in both endothermic and ectothermal organisms.
Viruses have a complex genetic makeup. Their genome is made up of one or several segments of nucleic acids, such as DNA. The structure of the viral genome also determines its replication strategy. A bacterial or viral molecule will use the same method of replication as a viral molecule. Therefore, a basic knowledge of virology is essential to understand the mechanisms of disease transmission. The etiology of these organisms is very important, because this will lead to the prevention of many diseases.
Viruses differ from bacteria in several ways. Plants have rigid cell walls that prevent most viruses from invading them. For example, fungal cells are made of chitin, and fungi have very thick cell walls. While animals have DNA, plant cells are made of cellulose and RNA. Despite their rigid cell walls, a virus can only infect another organism through force. In addition, insectvectors feed on the sap of plants, which breaks down the cell wall.
The virus genome is the set of genetic instructions for the viral particles. This information includes the essential proteins that are necessary for the virus to replicate in a host cell. The nucleic acid of the virus is relatively small, and a viral genome may contain as many as 12 capsomers. Hence, a viral population will be infected with a single-stranded DNA or double-stranded RNA. The difference in the two viruses is important.
Viruses have complex structures. They are classified according to their shape and their characteristics. Some have a purely helical capid, while others have a more complicated, icosahedral head. Regardless of the structure, a virus’s DNA or RNA is not a single molecule. They have an outer layer made of two layers of membranes. During infection, the virus spreads by a variety of means.
Viruses can infect cells by three different routes. The simplest route is via fecal-oral transmission, wherein the infected person’s saliva or feces are exposed to the nucleic acid of the infected person. Asexually transmitted viral infections can also be transmitted through contact with the saliva and bodily fluids of an infected person. While virioles are largely harmless, a virus that can cause harm is not infectious.
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