How a Viral Disease spreads Through Viability
First of all, what is a virus? Virus is little parasitic agents which dominate much of our microscopic universe. They are extremely abundant. There are more virus particles in a single grain of sand than there are bacteria living in an ocean. And there are many more viruses floating around out there than there are bacteria in the ocean
Viruses divide to form viral genome. The viral genome is a piece of DNA with instructions on how to replicate and reproduce itself. The DNA contains instructions for making copies of the virus itself (polymerase) inside the cell. In each cell (nucleus) there is one replicated piece of virus, or gene. This creates two types of virus: A good (self-replicating) virus and a bad (not self-replicating) virus.
Good viruses are very rare and hard to find. They only infect cells that are healthy, so we can’t touch them without killing the virus. A bad virus has the ability to infect almost every cell in the human body. It uses a protein synthesis system called a transgene to steal a piece of DNA from the host cell and replicate itself inside the cell.
Capsid, or protein coat, is part of a virus’s outer shell, or envelope. The capsid serves as the doorway to the genetic material inside the virus. It is made of a series of amino acids (proteins sugars). Each of these amino acids is coded by a genetic sequence (which is a series of instructions specifying how the amino acid should be put together).
The viral envelope is a highly complex protein layer on the surface of a virus. There is also a ribosome, which acts as a scanner, ready to read and copy the genetic material on the viral envelope. This scanning equipment (the ribosome) is present at the juncture between two adjacent protective membrane layers. When the virus invades a living host cell, it begins to replicate its proteins by means of this copying machinery. The duplication then releases viral enzymes that seek out and destroy any foreign proteins which might interfere with its replication.
The virus then releases a “genetic fragment”, a piece of nonfunctional DNA which then attaches itself to the ribosome. The two layers then continually scan each other for foreign DNA until the desired fragment is produced. If there is only one foreign gene (such as the HIV virus), then it will bind to the ribosome without actually copying it (a “missed binding”). If there are multiple copies of this DNA fragment, then it will attempt to hijack the ribosome and thus reproduce itself.
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