A virus is a biological organism that can only reproduce on living cells without causing any harm to its hosts. They are currently the most prevalent biological organism in the world. Most viruses are caused by bacteria, viruses that spread through contact with an infected person’s body fluids such as the nose, mouth, or eyes. Other types of viruses can cause serious medical conditions when they invade a healthy individual. For example, a recently discovered virus that has caused a deadly disease in India called swine flu has so far killed over 10 million people. Although there is no known cure for viruses, vaccines are available to reduce the risk of their infection.
To understand how a virus replicates and enters into a host cell, it is necessary to understand the structure of a virus. The virus’ outer surface is called the envelope. The envelope is made up of many different proteins called antigens, which trigger a reaction in the lining of the infected cell. The virus puts a genetic template inside the envelope called a replicated envelope protein. The viral protein can then be activated in a reaction initiated by a triggering factor such as a cellular receptor or transcription factor.
Viruses contain DNA or genetic material that serves as a blueprint for reproduction. The DNA code of a virus is dictated by natural genetic codes found in living things like plants and animals. Since many viruses only need to replicate themselves once, they are often referred to as single-strain viruses. There are many different strains of a virus; however, there are only a few types of viruses that can cause serious health problems.
The most common type of viral infection is an enveloped virus that uses a specific protein called a polymerase to insert its genetic code into the host cell’s membrane. One particular strain is called retroviruses, which are responsible for infecting some of the more familiar species of animals and plants. The virus uses the host cell’s plasma membrane to replicate itself. Many of these retrovirus particles can be seen with the naked eye on tissues such as the liver, kidney, lungs, intestines and other parts of the body. The particles can also be transmitted through bodily fluid.
Other types of viruses have genetic material that inserts themselves into an object through chemical processes known as biochemical degradation. These types of viruses are called bacteriophages. Some viruses have protein sequences that make use of another type of protein known as ribosomes. This type of protein is located in the capsid portion of the virus’ outer membrane. When a virus attaches itself to a piece of clothing or other infected object, it can create a hole in the protective membrane, allowing its genetic material to be carried to and from the host cell via the cellular pathways established by the ribosome.
Some viruses make use of a nucleic acid that serves as their genetic material. The DNA is the genetic blueprint of the virus. When this DNA is inserted into an object, it allows the virus to replicate uncontrollably. There are millions of different DNA combinations that can be found in every cell of the human body. Because the DNA of each virus is unique, it is important to know how the viruses various segments and pieces function together to form and infect healthy cells.
Love is a broad collection of behaviours and emotions characterized by intense intimacy, romance, passion, commitment, and emotional infidelity. It normally involves emotional closeness, caring, . . .
What Is Viral Replication? The word “virus” is not always recognized as something with a medical definition. However, the medical community does recognize certain types . . .